Year 2019, Volume , Issue 5, Pages 57 - 97 2019-12-31

Malhamat Daniel

İbrahim AL-KHAFFAF [1]

: ''Malhamat Daniel" is the oldest malhama book in Islamic history, and it concerns knowing the future events based on studying natural phenomena. It was attributed to the Biblical Daniel, even though the book was written hundreds of years after the time of Daniel. However, the reason for such an attribution stems from the importance of this character in the Judeo-Christian and Islamic religions, and also it stems from the connection of his name with Babylon, astrology and prophecy. In this thesis, the printed copy which I called ''Najaf edition''-whose manuscript is not available- is compared with three manuscripts. The comparison shows that the ''Najaf edition'' is the closest to the original lost text, although the other three manuscripts sometimes allow us to correct it. The original could have been translated from the Syriac or Aramaic language. And the clear difference between the Najaf edition and the three manuscripts explains the flexibility and the ability of this text for changing and adapting in accordance with the age and the environment to which it arrived. And it seems that there is a relationship of this text with the ancient Babylonian Literature, for example the phenomenon of starting the year with the month of Nisan. Because the region of Babylon played a great role in traditions about Daniel, in the process of tracing Daniel in Mesopotamia, we examine the shrines which were associated with him, most of them in the Southern Iraq. Comparing this with what the old travelers mentioned regarding his tomb, we reach a rough conjecture about the place in which the original text of the malhama could have been written. And after this examination and comparison it seems likely that the text behind the Najaf edition took its final shape in some place between Basra and Ahwaz, at the hand of a Shi'ite man who lived in the eleventh century. This study also tries to present every piece of information about Daniel in the ancient Islamic sources, thus this thesis can be taken as an introduction for any student who wants to study Daniel in Islamic History
Islamic History, Malhama, Daniel, Astrology, Prophecy, Babylon, Mesopotamia
  • Al-Khaffaf, Ibrahim. “Malhamat Daniel.” İsrailiyat: İsrail ve Yahudi Çalışmaları Dergisi, no. 5 (Kış 2019): 50-63.
Primary Language tr
Subjects Social Sciences, Interdisciplinary
Journal Section Araştırma Makaleleri

Author: İbrahim AL-KHAFFAF
Institution: History of Science, Faculty of Islamic Sciences, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Vakıf University
Country: Turkey


Publication Date : December 31, 2019

Bibtex @research article { israiliyat668712, journal = {İsrailiyat}, issn = {}, eissn = {2645-890X}, address = {Kırbaşı Cad 151/20 Karatay Konya}, publisher = {Huriye KULU}, year = {2019}, volume = {}, pages = {57 - 97}, doi = {}, title = {Malhamat Daniel}, key = {cite}, author = {AL-KHAFFAF, İbrahim} }
APA AL-KHAFFAF, İ . (2019). Malhamat Daniel. İsrailiyat , (5) , 57-97 . Retrieved from
MLA AL-KHAFFAF, İ . "Malhamat Daniel". İsrailiyat (2019 ): 57-97 <>
Chicago AL-KHAFFAF, İ . "Malhamat Daniel". İsrailiyat (2019 ): 57-97
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Malhamat Daniel AU - İbrahim AL-KHAFFAF Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - DO - T2 - İsrailiyat JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 57 EP - 97 VL - IS - 5 SN - -2645-890X M3 - UR - Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 İsrailiyat Malhamat Daniel %A İbrahim AL-KHAFFAF %T Malhamat Daniel %D 2019 %J İsrailiyat %P -2645-890X %V %N 5 %R %U
ISNAD AL-KHAFFAF, İbrahim . "Malhamat Daniel". İsrailiyat / 5 (December 2020): 57-97 .
AMA AL-KHAFFAF İ . Malhamat Daniel. İSRAİLİYAT. 2019; (5): 57-97.
Vancouver AL-KHAFFAF İ . Malhamat Daniel. İsrailiyat. 2019; (5): 97-57.